**I. SAS Steps**

**1. DATA Step**

Function: to create SAS data sets

**2. PROC Step**

Function: to perform data manipulation, statistical analysis and report / graph production

**II. SAS Statements**

**3. Libname Statement**

Function: to create a SAS library

**4. Input and Datalines statement**

Function: create a SAS data set with specified contents

**5. Filename statement**

Function: to specify the external data file

**6. Infile statement**

Function: to read in an external data file

**7. Set statement**

Function: to copy the contents from one data set into another

**8. If-then statement**

Function: set conditional statement to execute different functions

**9. Keep, drop statement**

Function: to keep only the variables needed in the data set

**10. Merge statement**

Function: to merge multiple data set into one

**III. SAS Statements**

**11. Sum function**

Function: to add up values

**12. Basic mathematical operation**

Function: to perform basic mathematical operations

**13. Random Variable (Exponential)**

Function: to create a random value from an exponential distribution

**14. Random Variable (Uniform)**

Function: to create a random value from a uniform distribution

**15. Square / Square Root**

Function: to calculate square and square root of a numeric value

**16. Combine character variable**

Function (double stroke): to combine two character values

**17. Substr**

Function: to extract partial text from a character value

**18. Trim / Compress**

Function: to remove trailing space (TRIM) or to remove all spaces (COMPRESS) from a character value

**19. Index**

Function: to identify the position where the specified text is found from a character value

**20. Upcase, lowcase, propcase**

Function: to convert the character value into upper case (UPCASE), lower case (LOWCASE) or proper case (PROPCASE)

Note: Proper case = Upper case in the first letter of each word and lower case in the rest

**21. Label**

Function: to change the label of the variable

**22. Length**

Function: to change the length of the variable

**23. Format**

Function: to change the format of the variable

**24. ABS**

Function: to convert the numeric value into an absolute value

**25. INPUT**

Function: to convert a character value into a numeric value

**26. PUT**

Function: to convert a anumeric value into a character value

**27. Log**

Function: to convert the numeric value into logarithm

**28. Mean, Min, Max**

Function: to compute the mean, minimum and maximum of a set of numeric values

**29. Rename**

Function: to rename a variable

**30. Round / Floor**

Function: to round a numeric value

**IV. SAS Procedures (PROC Step)**

**IV. SAS Procedures (PROC Step)**

**31. Proc Sort**

Function: to sort a data set

**32. Proc Transpose**

Function: to convert rows into columns in a data set

**33. Proc Freq**

Function: to compute frequency count and percentage of a variable

**34. Proc Means**

Function: to compute summary statistics such as mean, standard deviation and median

**35. Proc GChart**

Function: to create pie chart or histogram

**36. Proc Reg**

Function: to perform regression analysis

**37. Proc GLM**

Function: to perform general linear modeling

**38. Proc Gplot**

Function: to plot graphs

**39. Proc Print**

Function: to print the content of the data set

**40. Proc Report**

Function: to create a report from the data set